Saturday, August 1, 2020

Invasive Species Nightmare

While researching the topic of invasive species we may be overcome with the overwhelming complexity of the topic. For the most part ‘invasions’ possess unpleasant overtones. Invasions are usually unwelcome, be they military incursions, or the arrival of objectionable biological eantities. Plants or animals not indigenous or native to our area could bring with them unwelcome environmental changes or damage. Included in the latter category are also pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Some invasive species apparently do not cause environmental damage. We perceive them, incorrectly, as native species. Such pathogens have arrived from afar, even from a foreign country. These undesirable arrivals may also be termed “exotic.”

Invasive species in the Americas are far more common than we realize. Research into species categorized as invasive reveals hundreds of organisms—plants, animals, and pathogens which were known not to be native to this hemisphere before the arrival of explorers from the old world. The New World, North and South America, would be virtually biologically unrecognizable were we to board a time machine and visit the Americas of Columbus’ time only 500-600 years distant, or Norse settlements about 500 years before that. Native American Indians inhabited a land biologically different in many ways. We recall the Native American experience on our continents hundreds of years ago with great fascination. The fascination is historical, political and biological.

We reference our personal experience in Northern New Jersey after the family moved from Central New York State in 1951. In 1904, the unique eastern American Chestnut forests became infected by a fungal disease which originated in East Africa—the “greatest ecological disaster in our forests.” After a half century the American Chestnut forests which frequently produced gigantic trees over 100 feet tall in Eastern US were nearly gone—three billion trees. Our home in New Jersey, built in 1926, retained much wood in its bookshelves and decorative wooden pillars. They were constructed from wood of the American chestnut.

Our family left behind a heritage of agricultural beauty on its way to Northern New Jersey. A mighty elm had overlooked our farm fields in Onondaga County, NY, where we harvested corn, wheat and oats. The majestic elm has since yielded to an invasive species—the dutch elm disease. In our current home in northwest Illinois, we contracted for removal of over a dozen “expired” elm trees—victims of the same dutch elm disease. As I write, another elm across the street from our home awaits its final demise. Elm bark beetles are the vector for spreading the fungus which kills many majestic elm species. Dutch elm disease appeared in the US in 1928. It was also an exotic ‘wilt’ fungus, an import from the Old World. Forty million elm trees have perished in the US—many more around the world.

Ash borer, an insect native to NE Asia whose larvae feed on the bark of ash trees, currently infests many of our local trees. It entered the ecosystem in 2002 in Detroit, MI, on wooden packing materials from China. The borer damages the tree’s ability to transport water. Dieback and bark splitting results. 

Another personal experience with an invasive plant must be told, this time a harmless plant. In the last decade of my teaching career my students and I discovered a single, unusual woody plant in an unlikely forest location during a school sponsored trail hike. We returned to school with several huge leaves. One YouTube clip claims the leaves of paulownia tomentosa produced by the shoots of a tree cut down to ground level are as big as a car wheel. Pictures show gigantic leaves over two feet in diameter. The plant is known to consume enormous quantities of CO2. It is a prolific exotic from China which first arrived about 1840. Tongue in cheek, our students speculated the plant may have been a rare mutation from another planet.

More often than not, invasive species are deleterious. Most locales in our area are plagued with many invasive weeds and plants. Poison parsnip and garlic mustard are two common examples. There are many other illustrations.

The frequently quoted Genesis 1:28 contains an exhortation to ‘subdue’ the Earth. We  carefully interpret the meaning of ‘subdue’ in the context of responsible environmental practice. Humanity has an obligation to study diverse characteristics of multiple species within their ecological niches. We must carefully avoid importing harmful invasive species, either deliberately or accidentally. Humanity’s record in this area has been deficient.

Our research of this topic from a personal perspective has inspired us to study the invasive species issue from a more global perspective. 

            



   

      





  

  

Tuesday, July 21, 2020

Neowise--A Sky Spectacular

Currently we have an unusual visitor from outer space—Comet Neowise—an acronym named after Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer.

Natural sky “spectaculars” infrequently occur, unless we include sunrises, sunsets, motions and phases of the Moon, pinwheeling of the stars around Polaris daily, and weather events connected with a multitude of changing atmospheric conditions. Observers may categorize such daily events as spectacular in their own right. These events provide coherence, beauty, interest, and appeal. Comet appearances, however, provide a superlative ‘spectacular.’ 

In this day of emphasis on the out of the ordinary, visible comets could be considered ultra-spectacular. Solar System comets are unpredictable visitors. Many millions of comets originate in the Kuiper Belt beyond Neptune. This comet probably orignated beyond the Kuiper Belt where there may be a trillion such objects. These globs of frozen gases and dust orbit the Sun, some rarely falling close to the Sun in their elliptical orbits. When they reach the inner solar system the Sun’s heat vaporizes the frozen gases while the solar wind drives the gases and dust away from the Sun, forming a visible tail. After reaching perihelion, their closest approach to the sun, surviving comets are propelled back out to remote reaches of space from which they originated. Comet Neowise was discovered on March 27, 2020. It is not scheduled to make a return visit to the Sun for 6800 years according to mathematicians.

On July 19 we observed the sky just under the Big Dipper as evening darkness approached. For about 30 minutes, as the Dipper was slowly becoming visible, no trace of the comet appeared. Darkness finally enabled all the Big Dipper stars to come into view. Shortly, we caught a fleeting vision of the comet’s coma and tail. Within several minutes, we were sure we spotted Neowise. Averted vision, looking slightly to the periphery, was necessary rather than direct vision. Peripheral vision is more sensitive to dim objects. After a few minutes, binoculars revealed Neowise in its glory, but It remained an impressive naked eye object.

Comet Neowise is the most impressive naked eye comet visible in the past 23 years. In 1996 Comet Hyakutake was termed the Great Comet of 1996. It was visible for only a brief few days, speeding by Earth quickly because of its close approach. Comet Hale-Bopp, now known as the Great Comet of 1997 was even more impressive. It provided 18 months of visibility. My father, at age 88, was once able to view the comet through an Astroscan telescope with eyes weakened by macular degeneration. I provided an evening discussion and viewing opportunity for my students, aided by my pastor’s tracking telescope. We were able to see jets of gas spiraling away from the coma. The spiral jets were caused by the rotation of the comet body.

Many observers count Neowise, Hale-Bopp, and Hyakutake as the three most spectacular comets to become visible in their lifetime. The current “Neowise—A Sky Spectacular” post should be added to the collection of our former posts from late October to Early November 2019 in which we recounted many personal memories of sky spectaculars. The natural world, including the phenomena of comets, declares “the glory of God” and reveals “the work of his hands” (Psalm 19:1-4). Our July 19 observation of Comet Neowise took place on a startlingly beautiful, clear summer night. The MIlky Way was brilliant overhead in all its glory—somewhat unusual on a mid-summer day when light pollution is a handicap to star-gazing in many locations. (Our neighborhood has strict ‘dark sky’ regulations.) Neowise is a fleeting treat for comet-watching stargazers, providing motivation for a detailed study of one of many fascinating wonders of God’s creation. 



  

Monday, July 13, 2020

Locust Plagues--Ancient to Modern

The term “plague” may loosely refer to any widespread calamity or affliction. In these highly unusual days, some have referred to COVID-19 as a plague. In the Old Testament book of Exodus, chapters 7-11, there were ten incidents initiated by the Lord Himself to force Pharaoh to release the Israelites from their cruel bondage. These episodes were termed plagues. Some of the plague events could still occur today owing to chance events on our meteorologically dynamic earth. More likely, the ten plagues of Exodus were orchestrated by God Himself for a specific purpose. They are classified as transcendent divine miracles—events outside or beyond the normal limitations of the physical laws and space/time dimensions of this universe. (Contrast this type of miracle with the far more common sustaining and transformational miracles.)

Our position is that events such as a broad spectrum of weather disasters, historic bacterial or viral diseases similar to the worldwide current coronavirus pandemic, or the current desert locust plague gaining more worldwide attention are but a small sample of multiple hazards of living on Planet Earth in our temporal sphere of existence. Those who wrestle whether the glass is half full or half empty may pronounce this world a place of brokenness and despair, or they may perceive our planet as a place to thrive. This blog site has often enthusiastically characterized Earth as a place to thrive, at the same time being aware of the oft-challenging God-ordained planetary conditions we are instructed to solve for our own benefit. Below is one of several posts to propose the mysterious concept of “God’s higher purpose” as we describe serious difficulties and tragedies in our world:


As if the devastating coronavirus pandemic, the substantial damage to the world’s normal economic system it has caused, and the social turmoil in which our country is currently embroiled were not enough, the world now faces a plague of desert locusts over huge areas of East Africa, the Mideast, and Southern Asia. The species schistocerca gregaria, the desert locust, began to appear in 2019 and early 2020. It is a type of grasshopper, of which 7000 species exist. Of these, 20 species are considered locusts. In the current outbreak, the desert locust is the species responsible for incredible crop damage.

Although several theories of long distance locust migration across ocean expanses have gained some attention, one account of the Rocky Mountain locust is worthy of mention. Marauding locusts devastated large areas of western US agriculture in the 19th century. Mysteriously, they then disappeared. It is theorized they became extinct for reasons not entirely clear.

The 2020 locust outbreak extending from West Africa to Southern Asia encompasses a large area—20% of the Earth’s land area. Current major hotspot outbreaks in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Somalia are breeding grounds for future swarms of locusts. World health organizations are warning the world of an even more devastating locust plague. This depends on future weather conditions and agricultural deterrents such as pesticides which are of limited effectiveness in view of numbers of insects in the locust swarms. The speed and magnitude of locust proliferation is incredible. Eggs produced during drought or normal years have sprung to life in 2020 due to unusually heavy, sustained rainfall. It is the worst invasion of desert locusts in 25 years. One km2 may be populated by 150 million locusts. A single swarm covering 1200 km2 could support 50-100 billion locusts, each of which is capable of consuming its own body weight in vegetation daily. Locusts produce several generations in one year with a 20-fold population increase in only one generation.

A combination of factors is generating concern in the current locust crisis. Climate change may have exacerbated the locust plague by causing an unusual number of rain events in the past few years. Climate is changing long term; climate changes also occur short term. These changes have been present for thousands of years as have plagues of locusts.

Physiological changes resulting in behavioral changes result from huge numbers of locusts congregating and physically contacting each other in nymphal stages or early in their adult stages. This contact alters the insects’ phenotype—they become somewhat physically transformed from their early characteristics as well as substantially different in their behavior. They are now gregarious. They begin to swarm in massive groups, moving from one place to another over Earth’s geographical locations. This change in the locusts’ observable characteristics promotes their survival as a species. Sadly, this change in their behavior may result in famine, disease, and increased poverty among the inhabitants of Africa, the Mideast, and Southern Asia.

Our world continues to suffer from the coronavirus pandemic. Residents must cope with deleterious effects of COVID-19, the desert locust, and unstable political realities. It is incumbent on Christians to educate themselves concerning the locust and coronavirus plagues, not to mention existing political turmoil. We must pray for those affected by tragedies and for national leaders in these dire days.     

  

       

   


   

Monday, June 29, 2020

Active Nature Observers

Continuing the topic of nature networking, we dive into a discussion of the inspiration provided by events in our own yard. We have just passed the summer solstice, the annual date when the sun rises to the highest point in its trek across our northern hemisphere heavens. Apart from a fascinating astronomical explanation for this solar phenomenon, we automatically connect this northern hemisphere summer solstice occurrence with warmth, long days, short nights, and a healthy burst of renewal of both plant and animal life. Many uniquely fascinating, curious behaviors of our energized warm season residents become apparent. We hone our observational and research skills for maximal enjoyment.

Recently I became aware of an old expression with which I was unfamiliar—belly botany. Here is a literal and somewhat extreme definition: Close, unhurried exploration of nature, including tiny insects best observed while looking up close, even positioned on your belly, perhaps with a powerful magnifying glass. More generally, the term applies to an intense study of our environment using finely developed observational skills. The term originated with Walt Disney (1901-1966) who used the term to describe how close observation in his hometown state of Missouri as a child inspired his source of creativity and inspiration even as a young person. We repeat our previous post’s reference to the instructional qualities provided by living things and the earth itself in the 12th chapter of Job. We learn characteristics of the Creator and Author of All Things with a careful study of the world of nature.

We clarify: Belly botany is an intensive study of the natural world, using not only powers of sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste, but extending research activity to provide fuller discovery. Research takes many forms, such as studying the physical, chemical, and neurological basis for traits manifest by our local animal and plant life. Knowledge becomes fuller as we study startling intrinsic behavioral and functional capabilities of neighborhood animals.

Our home is located in mid-latitudes of upper Midwest US, between the tropics and 60 degrees N. latitude. We discover truth about the Creator’s intelligent design handiwork by carefully observing and contemplating living creatures. We have mentally catalogued several unusual behaviors of local wildlife in our spring 2020, editing our lengthy list to include the most interesting events.

Eastern grey squirrels, native to North America, provide entertainment as they chase each other and vault through the tall black walnut, cedar, and wild cherry trees. Some forays are obviously related to food searches. Other purposes for their acrobatic antics may relate to mating rituals. Many times our squirrels’ behavior manifests no purpose apart from self-entertainment and pure explorational joy. They innately plan creative moves and account for their own bodily motion with nary an accident in trees over 50 feet tall. They must consider not only their own motion but also the motion of branches bending with their own weight as they launch. This morning I noticed a “first” on our back deck. Our deck umbrella is 6-8 feet off the ground and located an equal distance from any horizontal structure. One squirrel made it to the top of our large umbrella with process skills still unknown to this observer. Later he temporarily seemed at a loss to find his way down. He finally solved the problem by leaping off safely. Many YouTubes document incredible problem solving feats of these animals.

Also current as I write are profuse swarms of butterflies of the species empress flora and closely related species identified according to the National Audubon Society Field Guide of North American Butterflies. Recently four different specimens alighted on my body all at once. I observed their tightly coiled proboscis which uncoiled to act as a straw. Butterflies drink nectar from flowers because butterflies do not eat; they only drink their food. In their close visit with me on my front porch the butterflies manifested “puddling”—feeding from moist ground or dry surfaces. They acquire nutrient minerals such as sodium for their physiological processes. These butterflies swarmed in groups, following each other at close range and high speed. Large swarms of birds manifest identical traits—the ability to change speed and direction en masse in a tiny microsecond of time. This ability far exceeds athletic reaction time capabilities of our most gifted human athletes.

In the past few weeks a well-known exceptional example of insect behavior has been reported in local publications. The 17-year cicada possesses ability far more remarkable than the ordinary suite of insect behavior. In 2007 we heard a chorus of 17-year cicadas producing a sonorous din in our nearby woods. Adult cicadas of that brood later produced tiny eggs which today are in the process of tunneling under the ground for 17 years (exactly 17 years) feeding on root sap as their nymphal stages slowly mature. Then, in quantities of billions, the larvae will break out of their underground lair in 2024 and ascend to upper plant branches to sing their mating call for a few days. The last few weeks we have been serenaded by a few periodic cicadas. But 2020 is four years early! Several articles claim these are 17 year cicada “stragglers,” a curious exception to the 17-year cicada’s usual behavior. Similar cicada species tunnel for exactly 13 years. Their timing is precise but their behavior is essentially unexplained as are numerous wonders in God’s created world of living things.

We introduce another personal neighborhood tale with a brief sidebar. Several years ago our family assembled in Georgia for a reunion. One night after dark our grandson informed the group about noisy frogs singing outside. Only two reunion attendees went outside to investigate—grandfather and grandson. We were treated to the unique songs of dozens of gray tree frogs just a few steps outside, visible to us only via flashlight. A few weeks ago we were visited by a single gray tree frog, a first time visitor to our home in extreme northwest Illinois, 900 miles north of Georgia. We initially took note of his presence as he sang to us in the middle of the night. Over the next two weeks the amphibian shared his mating call during the day from shrubs in front of our house; at other times he loudly called from inside our covered back deck gas grill. Once I was privileged to spot him crawling on the deck after dark. He departed soon, apparently in search of liquid water pools. We considered his visits an unusual gift from the storehouse of plentiful natural wonders.

We cite a few other natural wonders of spring just passed. Wild turkeys enjoy dust baths, part of their preening and plumage maintenance. They also enjoy “de-dusting” on our concrete front stoop, leaving behind turkey footprints for humorous effect. A partially white crow, an example of leucism, made visits on two occasions. Two buck deer crossed our front yard with velvet still visible on their antlers. Before they forcibly remove this velvet antler coat in August or September, blood vessels within the velvet supply antlers with minerals to promote healthy bone growth and structure. When we spotted these bucks recently, their antlers were prominent but not yet close to fully grown. These examples of physiological processes are but a few of thousands of divine design phenomena in the world of living things.

Leaf-out this spring was slightly late in our deciduous forest, but ultimately more luxuriant than usual. Optical study of the wondrous growth and development of plants in spring may be satisfying for the “belly botanists” described in our post’s opening paragraphs.

Belly botanists may extend their skills to active astronomical observation. During the spring a beautiful long term appearance of Planet Venus in western skies continued. Since late 2019 it was a beautiful “evening star.” Astronomical forecasters had warned us Venus would take a rapid dive out of the evening sky in late May to a position in the glare of the apparent sun only to reappear in the morning sky and remain visible there until early 2021. As of June Venus became a “morning star.” The nearby planet is often called “Earth’s twin” because it is almost the same size as Earth. 

We would do well to learn about the God of Creation as active observers of nature—both its living and non-living realms. We do not worship the creation, however. We worship the God of Creation.

Thank you, readers, for permitting your blogger to share natural highlights from our personal neighborhood…..





           
   

   





  












  

       

Thursday, June 18, 2020

Networking with Nature

In modern parlance, networking signifies making contact and exchanging information. Usually it relates to interactions with other people, groups, or things. We refer to social networking with a nod to technology unheard of just a few years ago. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram have their origins in the first decade of our current century. Modern residents have forfeited many of the benefits of personal, face-to-face interactions. They have also reduced the inspiration available from observing the natural world.

In the 21st century many residents employ the relationships provided by social media in place of the experiences provided by our rich natural environment. The recent coronavirus pandemic has necessitated reliance on social networking in the fields of employment, education, and personal contact. Social scientists and educators have expressed concern about possible overuse of electronic networking while neglecting the knowledge and inspiration supplied by our God-created natural, physical world.

Consider the words of the Old Testament biblical figure Job: 

“But ask the animals, and they will teach you, or the birds of the air, and they will tell you; or speak to the earth, and it will teach you, or let the fish of the sea inform you. Which of all these does not know that the hand of the Lord has done this? In his hand is the life of every creature and the breath of all mankind.” (Job 12:7-10 NIV)

In what respect are the animals able to teach us? Or what may we learn from observing the characteristics of the non-living physical world? Periodically Job injects the overwhelming importance of natural wisdom God has infused within not only living things, but also in the characteristics of the earth itself. Citations of the natural world, recurring frequently in this Old Testament book of wisdom, are worth considering for more than merely reminders of earth’s esthetic beauty. We consider references to the natural world a significant reminder of the characteristics of the Creator Himself.

By observing animals, we are enabled to learn engineering skills, optimum hunting strategies, methods of food procurement or storage, implementation of defensive or protective strategies, as well as optimum use of their individual physical endowments such as running, climbing, eating, and a host of other skills. In terms of observing the non-living physical world, we might learn about multiple physical constants/laws and their orderliness, predictability, and constancy.

Networking with nature? Compared with social networking now an adjunct of our modern society, we posit that old-fashioned nature awareness is undervalued in our day. We do not disparage all forms of social networking. The advantages of FaceTime, Zoom technology, and others flourishing in the last decade, are a boon to grandparents living at a distance and to many other legitimate users. The problem surrounding these technologies relates to how many grip our societies at warp speed before we assess their long term potentials, impacts, benefits, or dangers.

In the lives of my parents and grandparents, there were still ample opportunities to network with nature. This sort of networking was easily accessible. My four grandparents were farmers living in the last few decades of the 19th century. We muse how natural networking drew them closer to the Creator—awareness of nature  described in Job 12. Current social networking was largely non-existent in their day. Letters, post-cards, and primitive telephones were early whispers of social networking. Both types of relationships involve exchanging information to enhance knowledge. 

Physical scientists describe how the electromagnetic spectrum in concert with digital technology enable modern residents to network socially. Physical scientists teach the power of physical constants and physical laws which describe an orderly, predictable universe. Life scientists describe the wonders of animal intelligence, behavior, and function. Both groups of scientists are able to access truths of general revelation. Theological truth is given to humanity by general revelation, by which we become aware of wonders of the natural world, and by special revelation, the revealed written WORD of God by which we are instructed concerning the nature of the Creator.    












   

     


Saturday, June 6, 2020

By the Numbers

“By the numbers” is a well-known modern idiom. Its use suggests doing things in a strict, exact, formulaic way. However, there is no literal meaning of numbers in a mathematical sense when we do things “by the numbers.”

If we apply the expression more literally, we have many opportunities to study our world in terms of numbers. Describing quantities according to numbers is a necessary requirement in the field of marketing. We purchase substances according to numbers of grams, pounds, or milliliters, quantities of eggs (by the dozen), copy paper by the ream (500 sheets), or ears of sweet corn for our community picnic (we’ll take 100). In these contexts, we are interested in number precision.

In the world of nature we encounter many incredible, stupendously large numbers. For example, in relation to the number of atoms in a single body cell, we are dealing with 100 trillion. That number matches an estimate for the number of cells in the human body—100 trillion. Scientists’ approximations of the number of molecules in a typical snowflake vary with the calculating skills of individual estimators. Several have put the number at 180 billion. Others offer much larger numbers. 

There are many other mind boggling numbers related to tiny entities in our environment. Bacteria are gigantic compared with atoms and molecules, but are still beneath our ability to see without a light microscope. Our body is inhabited by 1000 or more bacterial species. The total number of bacteria in and on the human body roughly approximates the total number of bodily human cells. That number fluctuates, depending on new research findings. Recently the number of human body cells has been lowered to 37.2 trillion. Viruses are considerably tinier than bacteria. They exist in and on the human body and are up to 10 times more numerous than bacteria. Bacterial and viral communities are collectively called the microbiome, also including fungi and protozoa. Truly, we live in a microbe world.

What about the microbiome? Even if we are not interested in statistics, we cannot help but be impressed “by the numbers.” Upon searching for definitions and commentaries on the microbiome, we uncovered this Wikipedia definition: “The microorganisms in a particular environment (including the body or a part of the body). The Wikipedia entry continues, “We depend on a vast army of microbes to stay alive: a microbiome that protects us against germs, breaks down food to release energy, and produce vitamins.” The Earth’s microbiome is but a tiny segment of the totality of God’s work in creation. We may be forgiven for wondering why so many viruses and bacteria even exist, especially in view of the deleterious effects of several hundred well known harmful pathogenic agents.  

The creative ability of God in the production of our physical cosmos is far beyond our ability to comprehend. The intricate designs of life forms is controlled and enabled by the features of the genetic material, DNA, with its esthetic beauty. DNA codes for millions of diverse life forms. Our grasp of “the numbers” involved in describing or cataloguing the billions of physical entities comprising our created cosmos is merely the beginning of scientific understanding. Knowing how the “numbers” contribute to a beneficial ‘working order’ for the good of humanity is a challenge even for the most advanced science specialists.

Another example may illustrate the benefit of huge numbers. Some theological skeptics have proposed that the Creator was wasteful in producing up to two trillion galaxies in our universe, each containing billions of stars, especially if humans inhabiting the Solar System are unique in our vast universe. On its face, this argument may seem valid. We close with an example involving incredible numbers—the trillions of galaxies, stars, and planets in our cosmos…..

In the past few decades cosmologists have discovered previously unknown truths about how our universe functions with its trillions of galaxies, stars, and planets. About a century ago Big Bang cosmology became prominent. Astrophysicist Albert Einstein felt that the gravitational attraction of universal matter might eventually result in a “Big Crunch” where the universe would collapse on itself—a decelerating universe. Several decades ago a surprising discovery was made. Astronomers announced that the universe was, instead, expanding due to the presence of a mysterious dark energy. Below we quote from our 12-21-11 post:


“It now appears the precision required for life sustaining expansion is even greater than in the former decelerating universe. The term precision acquires new meaning in this context. The precision required is exponentially greater than for any physical system that man has ever devised. Had the expansion rate been slightly greater no planets, stars or galaxies could have formed at the right times and places. The universe would contain only diffuse gas and dust. This scenario would have resulted in too little mass density. On the other hand had the expansion rate been slightly less only life destroying giant stars and black holes would have formed because too much mass was present. Someone may ask, How much extra mass is too much or too little?” The answer: Less than the mass of a single dime in the entire universe.”

We do not pretend that the above example proves any specific point about “the numbers” of atoms, molecules, bacteria, or viruses in our current world. At a minimum it conveys the amazing truth that even one dime’s worth of mass is significant in the proper functioning of our entire physical system. This includes the mass of uncounted trillions of stars and galaxies.

Our created universe operates under the sustaining power of God. He is the Creator (Genesis 1:1) and He is the sustainer (Colossians 1:17). Every entity exists at His command and for His purpose.          





         

Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Incredible Virus World

Viruses have dominated our attention since early 2020. Virus microbes have been an ever-present accompaniment of human experience before we knew that viruses existed as a physical entity and before they were perceived through any sort of visual device. Scientists became aware of viruses as a mysterious unexplained cause of infections within the last two centuries. In our lifetimes, when we were ill we blamed “a virus.” That was often true but it did not explain very much. Since the early 1930s, we were able to see viruses through an electron microscope.

We cite coronaviruses as an example. Coronaviruses have been known as the cause of common colds and various other respiratory ailments in humans. A more serious novel coronavirus has suddenly appeared on our scene with serious health threats to senior citizens. The COVID-19 virus is not nearly as harmful to younger people.

Vincent Racaniello is known as “Earth’s virology professor,” teaching in the Department of Microbiology at Columbia University. He is a talented, well-known educator and researcher in the field of virology. This year he initiated Virology 2020 lectures at Columbia which are freely available on YouTube. Each lecture runs more than one hour and is powerfully instructive. It would be desirable for all politicians and government authorities to be instructed in the world of viruses. Professor Racaniello states in his first lecture that he loves viruses and has a passion for them. His overpowering respect for viruses is understandable as we become better informed. 

Racaniello claims if we want to understand life, human health, and human disease, we need to know more about viruses. Here are several quotes from his initial 2020 lecture: “We live and prosper in a literal cloud of viruses. Viruses infect every living thing on the planet. Nothing escapes a virus infection. We regularly eat and breathe in billions of virus particles on a daily basis and viral genomes are part of our genomes as well. They are truly pervasive. They are everywhere.”

“Having a virus” has often been synonymous with feeling ill. With the prevalence of thousands of different viruses present all around us, we may wonder why we do not more often feel ill. Ecologically, viruses play many more beneficial than harmful roles. If we ingest them, most pass harmlessly through us. Many are “dead end” viruses. MERS and SARS coronaviruses are examples. The COVID-19 pandemic is unusual in its  virulence and level of contagion. We pray that COVID-19 would be similarly a “dead end” virus and that a medical treatment would be quickly discovered.

Recent discoveries involve virus “spillover” events, relatively rare events in which viruses are transmitted from animals to humans. Even more rare is the subsequent viral transmission from human to human. The recent novel coronavirus pandemic is such an example. In our modern world where human population has exploded to over 7.5 billion in a relatively short time frame, many modern phenomena such as overcrowding, unique problems in food processing, and burgeoning worldwide travel, coping with viruses has become more difficult.

Instead of wondering why God permits the existence of microbial diseases in our time or speculating whether our Creator is specifically messaging the human race, humanity should focus on the the role man has played in enabling widespread disease spread through foolish management of our environment. Man, created in God’s image, has possessed the ability to implement prudent environmental and ecological principles from the beginning (Genesis 1:28). God has sent this message to humanity since he was created. The messaging has been continuous.

A separate question is why there exists a relationship between viral and bacterial microbes on this planet, or why they even exist at all. Most simply, it is a part of the created order since life appeared on Earth. Generally, we acknowledge that the planetary operating system works exceedingly well if managed according to Godly principles. Man sometimes disrupts the ideal working system.

Only 1.5% of the human genome codes for proteins, the physical building material of life. Until recently evolutionary scientists pronounced most of the remaining DNA to be “junk.” Why would God permit useless DNA to be present in the genome? they asked. Their explanation was the “junk” was merely an evolutionary leftover. In the last several decades we have discovered majestic usefulness for most of the so-called “junk” DNA. The Creator knew what He was doing! Likewise, the relationship between viruses and bacteria has a purpose. Most viruses and most bacteria serve a useful purpose. For this, we are thankful.