Tuesday, October 31, 2023

Neuroscience and Bioelectricity

 We have described the reality of digital electrical signals by which our central and peripheral nervous systems communicate with each other. All human body cells possess electrical properties. If this were not true, our bodies would not function. The eleven major body systems would be unable to communicate with each other and regulate conditions in the body. Billions of neurons possess action potentials by which electrical charges are sent to other neurons.

What are action potentials? They are small “spike-like” events—nerve impulses consisting of electrical signals which transmit digital information. These electric impulses are either ‘on’ or ‘off.’ That is why the information is considered digital.

“Action potentials are of great importance to the functioning of the brain since they propagate information in the nervous system to the central nervous system and propagate commands initiated in the central nervous system to the periphery.” (Neuroscience Online, McGovern Medical School.)

Bio-electricity is a flow of electrically charged ions, not a flow of electrons. Ions are formed when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons. A familiar example is the formation of common table salt. An atom of sodium gives an electron to an atom of chlorine. The sodium atom becomes a positive ion and chlorine becomes a negative ion. Proteins provide ion channels through which charged ions move across the cell membrane, carrying their charges with them. This movement may accurately be termed an electric current.

We link several posts from Aug./Sept. 2014 in which we referred to electrical signals flowing through neurons. These posts may be easier to understand than the information presented in the above paragraphs:





How could a storm of digital electrical pulses be converted to a coherent visible image by the human brain and impart conscious awareness of thousands of different shapes and colors in our field of vision? Our field of vision is usually not an experience in still photography. Mostly, our eyes process a plethora of movement moment by moment. Our normal vision consists of uncounted thousands of data points—all in living color!

Charles Darwin confessed that it was “absurd” to propose that the human eye evolved through spontaneous mutation and natural selection. But he never abandoned his  firm belief in evolution. Neither do the majority of 21st century professional biologists reject the evolutionary paradigm. According to Wikipedia, between 770 thousand and 1.7 million neuron fibers from retinal ganglion cell axons send digital electronic signals from the retina to the brain through the optic nerve. The human brain imparts meaning to the digital data. The foregoing sentence  is an example of description, but the statement is short on explanation.

We long for meaningful explanations of human eye/brain function. Scientists are more adept at offering descriptions; less adept at offering explanations. This does not indicate there are no explanations for certain phenomena in the world of our experience. In the world of the scientist, however, many are fascinated by the process of discovery. 

The miracle of human vision does not yield to easy explanations. In personal research dealing with human vision, we frequently encounter statements such as “…scientists don’t fully understand how our brains do it” or “…(retinal) neurons that encode objects respond in complicated ways.” 

Our blog posts credit the power of the Ultimate Designer/Creator. He is the Author of the laws of nature. But He is also the God of Creation.   


Thursday, October 19, 2023

Body Systems Analysis

Of all eleven human body systems, the nervous system is known as the control and communicating system for all other body systems. The study of biology consists of eleven major systems, integrated to produce a highly functional human body. We list eleven recognized systems: (1) circulatory, (2) digestive, (3) endocrine, (4) integumentary (skin), (5) lymphatic, (6) muscular, (7) nervous, (8) reproductive, (9) respiratory, (10) skeletal, and (11) urinary (excretory).

Our past post—Systems Integration, linked belowdiscusses both human body systems and other physical systems surrounding us. Our current post serves as an introduction to a more detailed treatment of only one body system—the nervous system.


The systems of the human body are finely tuned to function effectively not only individually, but as an integrated unit. At any one moment, the expression “feeling well” describes the optimal functionality of all body systems working together. Many people tend to focus on temporary malfunctions of even one body system. For instance, the common cold is an infection in the respiratory system; a skin rash is a problem with the integumentary system; an upset stomach is a disturbance in the digestive system; a UTI results from germs attacking the urinary system; muscle soreness is a dysfunction of the muscular system; an upset stomach is an imbalance in the digestive system.

We wonder why humans do not suffer continual discomfort when so many body systems potentially could go awry. The simple answer is that Our Creator has designed body systems to cope with minor (and sometimes major) physical symptoms produced by stress and disease. But God also gifted humanity with ability to treat stress and disease and maintain health with prudent diet and personal habits as well as modern medical interventions such as therapy and surgery. In our times, Our Creator has bestowed technological, agricultural and medical gifts to humanity in order to support a burgeoning human population of over eight billion.

In our opening paragraph, we highlighted the human nervous system which integrates all other body systems. We enlarge upon this concept with a discussion of the nervous system and its two main divisions—the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is composed primarily of the brain and spinal column. It is difficult to avoid awareness of our peripheral nervous system. Our muscular system, our circulatory system, our skin (integumentary system), and our skeleton are a few examples.

Integrally related to the nervous system is one of the four fundamental forces as defined by physical scientists. It is the electromagnetic force. How is the nervous system related to the electromagnetic force? 

For reference, we link  http://jasscience.blogspot.com/2023/09/creator-of-forces.html

Billions of nervous system cells called neurons use electricity to transmit information and regulate the human body. The body’s ‘electricity’ is used for communication and control of the eleven integrated human body systems. There is an electrical dimension to all matter.

Neurons are among the most fascinating body cells. A typical neuron is composed of a cell body possessing many characteristics of other human body cells. In addition, neurons have dendrites protruding from the cell body. They resemble tree branches or roots. The branching dendrites sense chemical or physical conditions in our bodies, as well as light, sound, heat, odor, and taste in our environment. The dendrites transmit messages in the form of digital electrical signals to the cell body and into the axon, a long, thin appendage of the cell body. Digital electrical signals reinforce other digital signals from other neurons. Ultimately, the digital signals arrive at the human brain, part of central nervous system.

In review, the peripheral nervous system primarily senses conditions in our environment and sends this information to the central nervous system. Many brain centers receive the digital information and ‘figure out’ its meaning. Conscious humans respond appropriately.  Scientists have identified many brain locations where complex physical phenomena are integrated. The nervous system integrates ten other body systems, each of which possesses its own intricate beauty.

In Psalm 139:14 King David, in the pre-scientific age, composed a prescient passage of scripture. Prescient relates to knowing in advance. In our modern day we have discovered details of all human body systems.            

“I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made; your works are wonderful, I know that full well.” Psalm 139:14 (NIV).